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Recognize These Various Symptoms of Endocarditis

The symptoms of endocarditis can be different for each sufferer. This condition should not be ignored, because if not treated promptly, severe heart damage can occur. So, to prevent serious complications, get to know what the symptoms of endocarditis are.

Endocarditis is inflammation of the inner lining of the heart called the endocardium. This condition is often caused by a bacterial infection, but viral and fungal infections can sometimes cause endocarditis.

Endocarditis is more at risk in people who have a history of certain diseases or conditions, for example:

  • Heart problems, such as heart disease, congenital heart disease, and damage to heart valves
  • HIV infection
  • Sepsis
  • Autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatic fever
  • History of heart valve surgery or installation of a pacemaker ( pacemaker )
  • Use of injectable drugs

However, endocarditis can still be experienced by people who are healthy and do not have a history of heart disease.

It is important to recognize the symptoms of endocarditis so that this condition can be immediately checked by a doctor and treated. If treated late, endocarditis can cause a variety of serious complications, from stroke, sudden cardiac arrest, blockage of blood vessels or embolism, to death.

Various Symptoms of Endocarditis that are Important to Know

Symptoms of endocarditis can appear suddenly within a few days (acute endocarditis), but they can develop slowly over weeks or even months. Endocarditis that develops slowly is called subacute endocarditis.

In general, the following are some of the symptoms of endocarditis to watch out for:

  • Fever
  • Chest pain
  • Shortness of breath, especially during activity
  • Faster heartbeat or palpitations
  • Nausea or lack of appetite
  • Limp body
  • Headache
  • Muscle and joint pain
  • Skin looks pale
  • Swelling of the legs or abdomen
  • Night sweats
  • Painful lumps in the hands or feet

In addition to the above symptoms, endocarditis can also be recognized by the appearance of red or purplish spots on the skin, reddish or blackish streaks on the nails, and heart sounds (murmurs).

If you experience some of the above symptoms of endocarditis, consult a doctor immediately. To diagnose endocarditis, the doctor will perform a physical examination and supporting examinations in the form of blood tests, urine tests, echocardiography, electrocardiography, or EKG, as well as X-rays or CT scans of the heart.

Steps to Manage Endocarditis

After your doctor has confirmed that you have endocarditis and knows the cause, your doctor may recommend that you stay in the hospital.

At the hospital, you will receive intravenous fluid therapy and monitoring from doctors and nurses. In addition, doctors can provide the following steps for treating endocarditis:

Administration of drugs

The types of drugs that can be used to treat endocarditis are antibiotics. Generally, the doctor will give antibiotics by injection on an IV to treat the bacterial infection that is the cause of endocarditis.

The type of antibiotic given will be adjusted to the type of germ that causes endocarditis. When your condition gets better, your doctor may replace the antibiotic injected with a drinking antibiotic that can be consumed at home.


Surgery or surgery is usually needed if drugs are not able to treat the infection that causes endocarditis or if the endocarditis is caused by damage to the heart valves. Surgery aims to repair or replace heart valves, depending on the severity of the patient's condition.

The symptoms of endocarditis in each person can be different. If you have a history of heart disease and feel one or more of the symptoms of endocarditis, especially if you have risk factors for endocarditis, do not delay seeing a doctor.

After confirming that the complaint you are experiencing is indeed a symptom of endocarditis, your doctor can provide care and medication to treat the condition. The sooner the treatment is given, the lower your risk of experiencing dangerous complications.